​​Unless stated otherwise all images are copyright of The Tooley & Foster Partnership.

We thank the International Passive House Association for the use of the coffee jug and CEPHEUS images.

Energy use for heating in typical British houses is taken from the following:


Heat demand for space heating per dwelling built post-1996 (kWh delivered energy) 14,600 kWh.
Ref: 40% house, Boardman B, Darby S, Killip, Hinnells M, Jardine C N, Palmer J and Sinden G, Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, 2005.

Average British house size 85 sq m , average newly built dwelling 76 sq m .
Ref: Unaffordable Housing, Fables and Myths, Alan W. Evans and Oliver Marc Hartwich, Policy Exchange, 2005, quoted in (under Facts & Figures) also quoted on Design for Homes website.

14,600kWh per year divided by 85 sq m =171.76 kWh/sq m per year.

Measuring kWh/sq m  (energy use per unit of floor area):

Please note that the method of calculating kWh/sq m  varies slightly between the method used by Passivhaus and the Code for Sustainable Homes, largely due to the way floor area is measured. If the kWh/sq m  figures quoted for the Code for Sustainable Homes Levels 4 and 6 were calculated using the Passivhaus method, it is likely that they would be slightly different. The comparison shown is therefore indicative, but broadly correct.

The kWh/sq m  figures for Levels 4 and 6 of the Code for Sustainable Homes are the target figures for Fabric Energy Efficiency for a detached house.